A balance sheet is a financial statement that reports what an organization owns (assets), what it owes (liabilities) and its net worth at any given point in time. It adheres to the equation of assets equaling liabilities plus shareholders’ equity. The balance sheet is a key report used by investors and others to gain insight into the health of a business.
A company’s assets and liabilities are listed in a balance sheet, with current assets on the left side of the page and non-current assets on the right. The total of all assets will always balance out with the total of all liabilities and net worth, which is reported in the bottom section of the report.
The assets are categorized by their level of liquidity, with the most liquid asset classes being cash and cash equivalents. This includes money kept in checking and savings accounts as well as marketable securities that can easily be converted to cash. Non-current assets are the next category, and this consists of inventory and fixed assets such as buildings, equipment and vehicles. This category also contains long-term investments, such as livestock and grain inventories.
Liabilities are categorized as either short-term or long-term debts. Short-term debts are obligations that will expire in one year or less, such as accounts payable to vendors and the remaining balance of a bank loan. Long-term debts are obligations that will expire more than one year from the date of the balance sheet, such as corporate bonds and mortgage payments on real estate.
Shareholders’ equity is the final category of a balance sheet, and this consists of the initial investment that shareholders made in a business as well as any accumulated profits from operations. The balance sheet also reports any losses incurred during the period, which would decrease shareholder’s equity and increase the amount of outstanding debt.
A balance sheet is important because it provides a snapshot of a business’s finances at a specific moment in time. It allows investors to compare the worth of a business against its level of debt and other liabilities, which can help determine whether the business is healthy enough to continue operating or not.
It is also important to keep in mind that a balance sheet only shows the worth of a business at one moment in time, which is why companies typically complete them on a set schedule — for example, quarterly or annually. It is also a good idea to review a company’s historical balance sheets, as this can provide valuable insights into trends and changes over time. A company can create a balance sheet using an accounting software program, but it is not necessary to be an accountant or great with numbers to produce one. In fact, many of these products will prepare the report automatically based on the information you enter into the system. However, it is vital to note that the figures reported on a balance sheet are subject to professional judgment, which could change the results depending on how items are measured and recorded. Bilanz Hattingen